Arrhenius acid-base theory

What is the Arrhenius acid-base theory?

Acids: substances that in aqueous solution dissociate by yielding protons (H+).

  • Acidssustancias que en disolución acuosa se disocian cediendo protones (H+).
  • Bases: substances that in aqueous solution dissociate by yielding hydroxide ions (OH-).
  • Salts: substances that in aqueous solution dissociate by yielding other ions.

In general the dissociation equations are:

Acid: AH -> A + H+

NaOH -> Na+ + OH

Examples

HNO3 -> NO3 + H+ (monoprotic acid)

H2SO4 -> SO42- + 2H+ (diprotic acid)

H3PO4 -> PO43- + 3H+ (triprotic acid)

NaOH -> Na+ + OH

Ca(OH)2 -> Ca2+ + 2OH

Neutralization process

The neutralization process consists of the reaction of an acid and a base to give a salt and water.

H+ + OH -> H2O

In short, it can be written in general terms

H+ + OH -> H2O

So all the properties of the neutralization reaction must be the same for any acid and any base.

For example: the heat of neutralization is the same regardless of the acid and base used in the neutralization.