Periodic table

The current periodic table of the elements is as follows:

Origin of the Periodic Table

Is called periodic table the representation of the chemical elements in an orderly manner, in groups and periods proposed by the Chemist Dmitri Mendeleiev (1834-1907). In 1869, Mendeleev ordered the elements known to date in the form of a table where they were repeated properties in groups, when you explained to your students with letters in which were listed the atomic weight, and various chemical properties.

When ordering so increasing the atomic weight were the elements of a same group showed similar chemical properties.

Elements ordered by atomic number

Atomic no.NameSymbol
1HydrogenH
2HeliumHe
3LithiumLi
4BerylliumBe
5BoronB
6CarbonC
7NitrogenN
8OxygenO
9FluorineF
10NeonNe
11SodiumNa
12MagnesiumMg
13AluminiumAl
14SiliconSi
15PhosphorusP
16SulfurS
17ChlorineCl
18ArgonAr
19PotassiumK
20CalciumCa
21ScandiumSc
22TitaniumTi
23VanadiumV
24ChromiumCr
25ManganeseMn
26IronFe
27CobaltCo
28NickelNi
29CopperCu
30ZincZn
31GalliumGa
32GermaniumGe
33ArsenicAs
34SeleniumSe
35BromineBr
36KryptonKr
37RubidiumRb
38StrontiumSr
39YttriumY
40ZirconiumZr
41NiobiumNb
42MolybdenumMo
43TechnetiumTc
44RutheniumRu
45RhodiumRh
46PalladiumPd
47SilverAg
48CadmiumCd
49IndiumIn
50TinSn
51AntimonySb
52TelluriumTe
53IodineI
54XenonXe
55CaesiumCs
56BariumBa
57LanthanumLa
58CeriumCe
59PraseodymiumPr
60NeodymiumNd
61PromethiumPm
62SamariumSm
63EuropiumEu
64GadoliniumGd
65TerbiumTb
66DysprosiumDy
67HolmiumHo
68ErbiumEr
69ThuliumTm
70YtterbiumYb
71LutetiumLu
72HafniumHf
73TantalumTa
74TungstenW
75RheniumRe
76OsmiumOs
77IridiumIr
78PlatinumPt
79GoldAu
80MercuryHg
81ThalliumTl
82LeadPb
83BismuthBi
84PoloniumPo
85AstatineAt
86RadonRn
87FranciumFr
88RadiumRa
89ActiniumAc
90ThoriumTh
91ProtactiniumPa
92UraniumU
93NeptuniumNp
94PlutoniumPu
95AmericiumAm
96CuriumCm
97BerkeliumBk
98CaliforniumCf
99EinsteniumEs
100FermiumFm
101MendeleviumMd
102NobeliumNo
103LawrenciumLr
104RutherfordiumRf
105DubniumDb
106SeaborgiumSg
107BohriumBh
108HassiumHs
109MeitneriumMt
110DarmstadtiumDs
111RoentgeniumRg
112CoperniciumCn
113NihoniumNh
114FleroviumFl
115MoscoviumMc
116LivermoriumLv
117TennessineTs
118OganessonOg

How does the atomic radius vary?

The following table shows the values of the van der Waals and covalent radii for all the elements of the periodic table.[1]

Atomic no.SymbolvdW radii (pm)Covalent radius (pm)
1H11032
2He14037
3Li182130
4Be15399
5B19284
6C17075
7N15571
8O15264
9F14760
10Ne15462
11Na227160
12Mg173140
13Al184124
14Si210114
15P180109
16S180104
17Cl175100
18Ar188101
19K275200
20Ca231174
21Sc215159
22Ti211148
23V207144
24Cr206130
25Mn205129
26Fe204124
27Co200118
28Ni197117
29Cu196122
30Zn201120
31Ga187123
32Ge211120
33As185120
34Se190118
35Br185117
36Kr202116
37Rb303215
38Sr249190
39Y232176
40Zr223164
41Nb218156
42Mo217146
43Tc216138
44Ru213136
45Rh210134
46Pd210130
47Ag211136
48Cd218140
49In193142
50Sn217140
51Sb206140
52Te206137
53I198136
54Xe216136
55Cs343238
56Ba268206
57La243194
58Ce242184
59Pr240190
60Nd239188
61Pm238186
62Sm236185
63Eu235183
64Gd234182
65Tb233181
66Dy231180
67Ho230179
68Er229177
69Tm227177
70Yb226178
71Lu224172
72Hf223164
73Ta222158
74W218150
75Re216141
76Os216136
77Ir213132
78Pt213130
79Au214130
80Hg223132
81Tl196144
82Pb202145
83Bi207150
84Po197142
85At202148
86Rn220146
87Fr348242
88Ra283211
89Ac247201
90Th245190
91Pa243184
92U241183
93Np239180
94Pu243180
95Am244173
96Cm245168
97Bk244168
98Cf245168
99Es245165
100Fm245167
101Md246173
102No246176
103Lr246161
104Rf157
105Db149
106Sg143
107Bh141
108Hs134
109Mt129
110Ds128
111Rg121
112Cn122
113Nh136
114Fl143
115Mc162
116Lv175
117Ts165
118Og157

The following figure illustrates how these values vary periodically as we increase the atomic number of all the elements.

Variación radio de van der Waals vdw radio covalente número atómico tabla periodica
Variation of van der Waals radii (blue) and covalent radii (green) as atomic number increases.

Physicochemical properties of the elements

Masa atómica y abundancia de los diferentes isótopos

The atomic masses of the different isotopes are listed below, together with their relative abundance.[1]

IsotopeAtomic mass (u)Abundance (%)
1H1.00782503223(9)99.9885(70)
2H2.01410177812(12)0.0115(70)
3H3.0160492779(24)
3He3.0160293201(25)0.000134(3)
4He4.00260325413(6)99.999866(3)
6Li6.0151228874(15)7.59(4)
7Li7.016003437(5)92.41(4)
9Be9.01218307(8)100
10B10.0129369(4)19.9(7)
11B11.0093054(4)80.1(7)
11C11.0114336(10)
12C12.0000000(0)98.93(8)
13C13.00335483507(23)1.07(8)
14C14.003241988(4)
14N14.00307400443(20)99.636(20)
15N15.0001088989(6)0.364(20)
16O15.99491461957(17)99.757(16)
17O16.9991317565(7)0.038(1)
18O17.9991596129(8)0.205(14)
18F18.0009373(5)
19F18.9984031627(9)100
20Ne19.9924401762(17)90.48(3)
21Ne20.99384669(4)0.27(1)
22Ne21.991385114(18)9.25(3)
22Na21.99443741(18)
23Na22.9897692820(19)100
24Na23.99096295(4)
24Mg23.985041697(14)78.951(12)
25Mg24.98583698(5)10.020(8)
26Mg25.98259297(3)11.029(10)
27Al26.98153853(11)100
28Si27.9769265346(4)92.223(19)
29Si28.9764946649(5)4.685(8)
30Si29.973770136(23)3.092(11)
31P30.9737619984(7)100
32P31.97390764(4)
32S31.9720711744(14)94.99(26)
33S32.9714589098(15)0.75(2)
34S33.96786700(5)4.25(24)
35S34.96903231(4)
36S35.96708071(20)0.01(1)
35Cl34.96885268(4)75.76(10)
37Cl36.96590260(6)24.24(10)
36Ar35.967545105(28)0.3365(30)
38Ar37.96273211(21)0.0632(5)
40Ar39.9623831237(24)99.6003(30)
39K38.963706486(5)93.2581(44)
40K39.96399817(6)0.0117(1)
41K40.961825258(4)6.7302(44)
42K41.96240231(11)
43K42.9607347(4)
40Ca39.962590863(22)96.941(156)
42Ca41.95861783(16)0.647(23)
43Ca42.95876644(24)0.135(10)
44Ca43.9554816(3)2.086(110)
45Ca44.9561864(4)
46Ca45.9536890(24)0.004(3)
47Ca46.9545424(24)
48Ca47.95252277(13)0.187(21)
45Sc44.9559083(8)100
46Ti45.9526277(3)8.25(3)
47Ti46.9517588(4)7.44(2)
48Ti47.9479420(4)73.72(3)
49Ti48.9478657(4)5.41(2)
50Ti49.9447869(4)5.18(2)
50V49.9471560(9)0.250(4)
51V50.9439570(9)99.750(4)
50Cr49.9460418(9)4.345(13)
51Cr50.9447650(9)
52Cr51.9405062(6)83.789(18)
53Cr52.9406481(6)9.501(17)
54Cr53.9388792(6)2.365(7)
54Mn53.9403576(12)
55Mn54.9380439(5)100
52Fe51.948113(7)
54Fe53.9396090(5)5.845(35)
55Fe54.9382920(5)
56Fe55.9349363(5)91.754(36)
57Fe56.9353928(5)2.119(10)
58Fe57.9332744(5)0.282(4)
59Fe58.9348743(5)
57Co56.9362906(7)
58Co57.9357521(13)
59Co58.9331943(6)100
60Co59.9338163(6)
58Ni57.9353424(5)68.077(19)
59Ni58.9343462(5)
60Ni59.9307859(5)26.223(15)
61Ni60.9310556(5)1.1399(13)
62Ni61.9283454(6)3.6345(40)
63Ni62.9296696(6)
64Ni63.9279668(6)0.9255(19)
63Cu62.9295977(6)69.15(3)
64Cu63.9297643(6)
65Cu64.9277897(7)30.85(3)
64Zn63.9291420(7)49.17(75)
65Zn64.9292408(7)
66Zn65.9260338(9)27.73(98)
67Zn66.9271277(10)4.04(16)
68Zn67.9248446(10)18.45(63)
70Zn69.9253192(21)0.61(10)
67Ga66.9282025(13)
68Ga67.9279805(16)
69Ga68.9255735(13)60.108(9)
71Ga70.9247026(9)39.892(9)
68Ge67.9280953(20)
70Ge69.9242488(9)20.52(19)
72Ge71.92207583(8)27.45(15)
73Ge72.92345896(6)7.76(8)
74Ge73.921177761(13)36.52(12)
76Ge75.921402726(19)7.75(12)
75As74.9215946(9)100
74Se73.922475934(15)0.86(3)
75Se74.92252287(8)
76Se75.919213704(17)9.23(7)
77Se76.91991415(7)7.60(7)
78Se77.91730928(20)23.69(22)
79Se78.91849929(24)
80Se79.9165218(13)49.80(36)
82Se81.9166995(15)8.82(15)
79Br78.9183376(14)50.69(7)
81Br80.9162897(14)49.31(7)
78Kr77.9203649(8)0.355(3)
80Kr79.9163781(7)2.286(10)
82Kr81.9134827(9)11.593(31)
83Kr82.9141272(3)11.500(19)
84Kr83.911497728(4)56.987(15)
86Kr85.910610627(4)17.279(41)
85Rb84.911789738(5)72.17(2)
86Rb85.91116743(21)
87Rb86.909180531(6)27.83(2)
84Sr83.9134191(13)0.56(1)
85Sr84.912932(3)
86Sr85.9092606(12)9.86(1)
87Sr86.9088775(12)7.00(1)
88Sr87.9056125(12)82.58(1)
89Sr88.9074511(12)
90Sr89.9077300(28)
89Y88.9058403(24)100
90Zr89.9046977(20)51.45(40)
91Zr90.9056396(20)11.22(5)
92Zr91.9050347(20)17.15(8)
94Zr93.9063108(20)17.38(28)
96Zr95.9082714(21)2.80(9)
93Nb92.9063730(20)100
92Mo91.9068080(8)14.649(106)
94Mo93.9050849(5)9.187(33)
95Mo94.9058388(5)15.873(30)
96Mo95.9046761(5)16.673(8)
97Mo96.9060181(5)9.582(15)
98Mo97.9054048(5)24.292(80)
99Mo98.9077085(5)
100Mo99.9074718(11)9.744(65)
97Tc96.906367(4)
98Tc97.907212(4)
99Tc98.9062508(10)
96Ru95.9075903(5)5.54(14)
98Ru97.905287(7)1.87(3)
99Ru98.9059341(11)12.76(14)
100Ru99.9042143(11)12.60(7)
101Ru100.9055769(12)17.06(2)
102Ru101.9043441(12)31.55(14)
104Ru103.9054275(28)18.62(27)
106Ru105.907329(6)
103Rh102.9054980(26)100
102Pd101.9056022(28)1.02(1)
104Pd103.9040305(14)11.14(8)
105Pd104.9050796(12)22.33(8)
106Pd105.9034804(12)27.33(3)
108Pd107.9038916(12)26.46(9)
110Pd109.9051722(7)11.72(9)
107Ag106.9050916(26)51.839(8)
109Ag108.9047553(14)48.161(8)
106Cd105.9064599(12)1.25(6)
108Cd107.9041834(12)0.89(3)
110Cd109.9030066(6)12.49(18)
111Cd110.9041829(6)12.80(12)
112Cd111.9027629(6)24.13(21)
113Cd112.9044081(4)12.22(12)
114Cd113.9033651(4)28.73(42)
116Cd115.90476315(17)7.49(18)
111In110.905108(4)
113In112.9040618(9)4.281(52)
115In114.903878776(12)95.719(52)
112Sn111.9048239(6)0.97(1)
113Sn112.9051757(18)
114Sn113.9027827(10)0.66(1)
115Sn114.903344699(16)0.34(1)
116Sn115.90174280(10)14.54(9)
117Sn116.9029540(5)7.68(7)
118Sn117.9016066(5)24.22(9)
119Sn118.9033112(8)8.59(4)
120Sn119.9022016(10)32.58(9)
122Sn121.9034438(26)4.63(3)
124Sn123.9052766(11)5.79(5)
121Sb120.903812(3)57.21(5)
123Sb122.9042132(23)42.79(5)
120Te119.904059(3)0.09(1)
122Te121.9030435(16)2.55(12)
123Te122.9042698(16)0.89(3)
124Te123.9028179(16)4.74(14)
125Te124.9044299(16)7.07(15)
126Te125.9033109(16)18.84(25)
128Te127.9044613(9)31.74(8)
130Te129.906222748(12)34.08(62)
123I122.905589(4)
125I124.9046294(16)
127I126.904472(4)100
129I128.904984(3)
131I130.9061263(7)
124Xe123.9058920(19)0.0952(3)
126Xe125.904298(4)0.0890(2)
128Xe127.9035310(11)1.9102(8)
129Xe128.904780861(6)26.4006(82)
130Xe129.903509349(10)4.0710(13)
131Xe130.90508406(24)21.2324(30)
132Xe131.904155086(6)26.9086(33)
134Xe133.9053947(9)10.4357(21)
136Xe135.907214484(11)8.8573(44)
129Cs128.906066(5)
133Cs132.905451961(8)100
134Cs133.906718503(17)
136Cs135.9073114(20)
137Cs136.9070892(4)
130Ba129.9063207(28)0.106(1)
132Ba131.9050611(11)0.101(1)
133Ba132.9060074(11)
134Ba133.90450818(30)2.417(18)
135Ba134.90568838(29)6.592(12)
136Ba135.90457573(29)7.854(24)
137Ba136.9058271(3)11.232(24)
138Ba137.9052470(3)71.698(42)
140Ba139.910606(9)
138La137.907115(4)0.090(1)
139La138.9063563(24)99.910(1)
136Ce135.9071292(4)0.185(2)
138Ce137.905991(10)0.251(2)
140Ce139.9054431(23)88.450(51)
141Ce140.9082807(23)
142Ce141.9092504(29)11.114(51)
144Ce143.913653(3)
141Pr140.9076576(23)100
142Nd141.9077290(20)27.2(5)
143Nd142.9098200(20)12.2(2)
144Nd143.9100930(20)23.8(3)
145Nd144.9125793(20)8.3(1)
146Nd145.9131226(20)17.2(3)
148Nd147.9168993(26)5.7(1)
150Nd149.9209022(18)5.6(2)
145Pm144.912756(3)
147Pm146.9151450(19)
144Sm143.9120065(21)3.07(7)
147Sm146.9149044(19)14.99(18)
148Sm147.9148292(19)11.24(10)
149Sm148.9171921(18)13.82(7)
150Sm149.9172829(18)7.38(1)
152Sm151.9197397(18)26.75(16)
154Sm153.9222169(20)22.75(29)
151Eu150.9198578(18)47.81(6)
153Eu152.9212380(18)52.19(6)
152Gd151.9197995(18)0.20(1)
154Gd153.9208741(17)2.18(3)
155Gd154.9226305(17)14.80(12)
156Gd155.9221312(17)20.47(9)
157Gd156.9239686(17)15.65(2)
158Gd157.9241123(17)24.84(7)
160Gd159.9270624(18)21.86(19)
159Tb158.9253547(19)100
156Dy155.9242847(17)0.056(3)
158Dy157.924416(3)0.095(3)
160Dy159.9252046(20)2.329(18)
161Dy160.9269405(20)18.889(42)
162Dy161.9268056(20)25.475(36)
163Dy162.9287383(20)24.896(42)
164Dy163.9291819(20)28.260(54)
165Ho164.9303288(21)100
162Er161.9287884(20)0.139(5)
164Er163.9292088(20)1.601(3)
166Er165.9302995(22)33.503(36)
167Er166.9320546(22)22.869(9)
168Er167.9323767(22)26.978(18)
170Er169.9354702(26)14.910(36)
169Tm168.9342179(22)100
168Yb167.9338896(22)0.13(1)
169Yb168.9351825(22)
170Yb169.9347664(22)3.04(15)
171Yb170.9363302(22)14.28(57)
172Yb171.9363859(22)21.83(67)
173Yb172.9382151(22)16.13(27)
174Yb173.9388664(22)31.83(92)
176Yb175.9425764(24)12.76(41)
175Lu174.9407718(23)97.41(2)
176Lu175.9426897(20)2.59(2)
174Hf173.9400461(28)0.16(1)
176Hf175.9414076(22)5.26(7)
177Hf176.9432277(20)18.60(9)
178Hf177.9437058(20)27.28(7)
179Hf178.9458232(20)13.62(2)
180Hf179.9465570(20)35.08(16)
180Ta179.9474648(24)0.012(2)
181Ta180.9479958(20)99.988(2)
180W179.9467108(20)0.12(1)
182W181.9482039(9)26.50(16)
183W182.9502227(9)14.31(4)
184W183.9509309(9)30.64(2)
186W185.9543628(17)28.43(19)
185Re184.9529545(13)37.40(2)
187Re186.9557501(16)62.60(2)
184Os183.9524885(14)0.02(1)
186Os185.9538350(16)1.59(3)
187Os186.9557474(16)1.96(2)
188Os187.9558352(16)13.24(8)
189Os188.9581442(17)16.15(5)
190Os189.9584437(17)26.26(2)
192Os191.9614770(29)40.78(19)
191Ir190.9605893(21)37.3(2)
193Ir192.9629216(21)62.7(2)
190Pt189.959930(6)0.014(1)
192Pt191.961039(3)0.782(7)
194Pt193.9626809(10)32.967(99)
195Pt194.9647917(10)33.832(10)
196Pt195.9649521(10)25.242(41)
198Pt197.9678949(23)7.163(55)
197Au196.9665688(7)100
198Au197.9682424(7)
196Hg195.965833(3)0.155(12)
197Hg196.967213(3)
198Hg197.9667686(5)10.038(16)
199Hg198.9682806(5)16.938(39)
200Hg199.9683266(5)23.138(65)
201Hg200.9703028(7)13.170(66)
202Hg201.9706434(7)29.743(89)
203Hg202.9728728(18)
204Hg203.9734940(5)6.818(35)
201Tl200.970822(15)
203Tl202.9723446(14)29.52(1)
205Tl204.9744278(14)70.48(1)
204Pb203.9730440(13)1.4(1)
206Pb205.9744657(13)24.1(1)
207Pb206.9758973(13)22.1(1)
208Pb207.9766525(13)52.4(1)
210Pb209.9841889(16)
207Bi206.9784710(26)
209Bi208.9803991(16)100
209Po208.9824308(20)
210Po209.9828741(13)
210At209.987148(8)
211At210.9874963(30)
211Rn210.990601(7)
220Rn220.0113941(23)
222Rn222.0175782(25)
223Fr223.0197360(25)
223Ra223.0185023(27)
224Ra224.0202120(23)
226Ra226.0254103(25)
228Ra228.0310707(26)
227Ac227.0277523(25)
228Th228.0287413(23)
230Th230.0331341(19)
232Th232.0380558(21)100
231Pa231.0358842(24)100
233U233.0396355(29)
234U234.0409523(19)0.0054(5)
235U235.0439301(19)0.7204(6)
236U236.0455682(19)
238U238.0507884(20)99.2742(10)
237Np237.0481736(19)
239Np239.0529392(22)
238Pu238.0495601(19)
239Pu239.0521636(19)
240Pu240.0538138(19)
241Pu241.0568517(19)
242Pu242.0587428(20)
244Pu244.064205(6)
241Am241.0568293(19)
243Am243.0613813(24)
243Cm243.0613893(22)
244Cm244.0627528(19)
245Cm245.0654915(22)
246Cm246.0672238(22)
247Cm247.070354(5)
248Cm248.072350(6)
247Bk247.070307(6)
249Bk249.0749877(27)
249Cf249.0748539(23)
250Cf250.0764062(22)
251Cf251.079589(5)
252Cf252.081627(6)
252Es252.08298(5)
257Fm257.095106(7)
256Md256.09389(13)
258Md258.098431(5)
259No259.10103(11)
262Lr262.10961(22)
261Rf261.10877(5)
262Db262.11407(15)
266Sg266.1220(3)
272Bh272.1383(6)
277Hs277.1519(6)
276Mt276.1516(6)
281Ds281.1645(6)
280Rg280.1651(6)
285Cn285.1771(6)
287Fl287.1868(7)
291Lv291.2011(7)

References and notes

[1] The data have been taken from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 97th Edition.