Antimony gets its name from the Greek word anti-monos, meaning "not alone". This may refer to the fact that the element is never found pure in nature, but always combined with heavier metals, such as lead. The element's symbol, Sb, comes from stibnite, the Latin word for kohl, a form of eye makeup. The mineral stibnite (antimony trisulfide, Sb2S3) is the major source of pure antimony. Its pure form is mainly used to make hard alloys, such as the type of metal used by some printers. Ancient Egyptian kohl was made from powdered stibnite.

Summary of properties (Sb)

Atomic weight121.760(1)
Discoverer (year)unknown (ancient times)
Natural formmetallic solid (rhombohedral)
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Melting point (ºC)630
Boiling point (ºC)1750
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm)0.2
Isotope (abundance)121Sb (57.21), 123Sb (42.79)
Density g/cm36.68
Van der Waals radius (pm)206
Covalent radius (pm)140
Electronegativity (Pauling)2.05
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol)67.90
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol)19.87
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.21
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.240
Oxidation state+5, +3, -3
Electron affinity (eV)1.05
1st Ionization potential (eV)8.6084

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