Both the element gadolinium and its mineral gadolinite are named after the chemist Johan Gadolin, who discovered the element. Gadolinium compounds are used to obtain clear nuclear magnetic resonance images. It is also used in electronics and to make corrosion-resistant steel.

Summary of properties (Gd)

Atomic weight157.25(3)
Discoverer (year)De Marignac, Charles Galissard (1880)
Natural formmetallic solid (hexagonal)
Electron configuration[Xe] 47 5d1 6s2
Melting point (ºC)1311
Boiling point (ºC)3233
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm)6.2
Isotope (abundance)152Gd (0.20), 154Gd (2.18), 155Gd (14.80), 156Gd (20.47), 157Gd (15.65), 158Gd (24.84), 160Gd (21.86)
Density g/cm37.9
Van der Waals radius (pm)234
Covalent radius (pm)182
Electronegativity (Pauling)1.2
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol)312.00
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol)10.00
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.24
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.100
Oxidation state+3
Electron affinity (eV)
1st Ionization potential (eV)6.1498

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