The strongest neodymium magnets can lift thousands of times their own mass. The element neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach and was originally used to color glass. Small amounts of neodymium cause glass to take on a pinkish purple color. Today, this element is also used in lasers used in eye surgery.

Summary of properties (Nd)

Atomic weight144.242(3)
Discoverer (year)Von Welsbach, Baron Auer (1885)
Natural formmetallic solid (hexagonal)
Electron configuration[Xe] 44 6s2
Melting point (ºC)1010
Boiling point (ºC)3127
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm)41.5
Isotope (abundance)142Nd (27.2), 143Nd (12.2), 144Nd (23.8), 145Nd (8.3), 146Nd (17.2), 148Nd (5.7), 150Nd (5.6)
Density g/cm37.01
Van der Waals radius (pm)239
Covalent radius (pm)188
Electronegativity (Pauling)1.14
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol)284.00
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol)7.14
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.19
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.170
Oxidation state+3
Electron affinity (eV)>1.916
1st Ionization potential (eV)5.5250

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