Tin was one of the first metals used by humans. Until 5,000 years ago, tin was mixed with copper to produce bronze, an alloy that was stronger than either of the pure metals. The cassiterite mineral, SnO2, is the main source of pure tin. Tin is used in a wide range of applications, for example, plated steel objects, such as cans, to prevent them from corroding. Tin chloride is used to dye silks. This metal continues to be used in a variety of resistant alloys, such as pewter, soft solder and bronze.

Summary of properties (Sn)

Atomic weight118.710(7)
Discoverer (year)unknown (ancient times)
Natural formmetallic solid (tetragonal)
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Melting point (ºC)232
Boiling point (ºC)2270
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm)2.3
Isotope (abundance)112Sn (0.97), 114Sn (0.66), 115Sn (0.34), 116Sn (14.54), 117Sn (7.68), 118Sn (24.22), 119Sn (8.59), 120Sn (32.58), 122Sn (4.63), 124Sn (5.79)
Density g/cm37.31
Van der Waals radius (pm)217
Covalent radius (pm)140
Electronegativity (Pauling)1.96
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol)290.40
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol)7.03
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.23
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.670
Oxidation state+4, +2
Electron affinity (eV)1.11
1st Ionization potential (eV)7.3439

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