Titanium is a silvery metal, and its name comes from a race of mythical Greek gods (titans). It is as strong as steel but much lighter, and is not oxidized by water or other chemicals. Titanium is commonly used to prepare titanium dioxide, TiO2, which is used in paints and sunscreen creams. In addition, because it is non-toxic, it can be used to make medical implants, such as artificial hip joints. Wristwatches made of titanium alloys are light and strong.

Summary of properties (Ti)

Atomic weight47.867(1)
Discoverer (year)Gregor, William & Klaproth, Martin Heinrich (1791)
Natural formmetallic solid (hexagonal)
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Melting point (ºC)1660
Boiling point (ºC)3287
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm)5650
Isotope (abundance)46Ti (8.25), 47Ti (7.44), 48Ti (73.72), 49Ti (5.41), 50Ti (5.18)
Density g/cm34.54
Van der Waals radius (pm)211
Covalent radius (pm)148
Electronegativity (Pauling)1.63
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol)429.00
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol)14.15
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.52
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm0.220
Oxidation state+4, +3, +2
Electron affinity (eV)0.08
1st Ionization potential (eV)6.8281

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