Reactions with multiple mechanisms (multistep synthesis)

Table of Contents

In this section, the most significant named organic reactions are listed, classified according to the type of chemical reaction.

The elimination reaction occurs when two substituents leave the molecule to form an unsaturation, which can be a double bond, triple bond or ring. They occur through two types of unimolecular (E1) and bimolecular (E2) mechanisms.

A particular case of elimination reaction is when the two groups that are detached from the molecule belong to the same carbon, since it results in a carbene (:CR2).

Among the organic reactions with a name of the elimination typewe can highlight the following:

Arens-van Dorp synthesis (Isler modification)

Síntesis de Arens-van Dorp o modificación de Isler

References:
D. A. van Dorp and J. F. Arens, Nature 160, 189 (1947)

Auwers synthesis of flavone

Auwers synthesis of flavone

References:
K. v. Auwers et al., Ber. 41, 4233 (1908); 48, 85 (1915); 49, 809 (1916)

Baeyer-Drewson Indigo synthesis

Baeyer-Drewson Indigo synthesis

References:
K. Ziegler et al, Ann, 511, 1; 512, 164; 513, 43(1934)

Bakeland process (bakelite synthesis)

Proceso Bakeland o Síntesis de Baquelita
Proceso Bakeland o Síntesis de Baquelita

References:
A. von Bayeyer, Ber, 5, 280(1872)

Bally-Scholl synthesis

Bally-Scholl synthesis

References:
O. Bally, Ber, 38, 194 (1905)

Bardhan-Senguph phenanthrene synthesis

Bardhan-Senguph phenanthrene synthesis

References:
J. C. Bardhan and S. C. Sengupta, J. Chem. Soc. 1932, 2520, 2798

Bergmann azlactone and peptide synthesis

Bergmann azlactone peptide synthesis

References:
M. Bergmann, F. Stern and C. Witte, Ann. 449, 277 (1926)

Bernthsen acridine synthesis

Bernthsen acridine synthesis

References:
A. Bernthsen, Ann. 192, 1 (1878); 224, 1 (1884)

Biginelli synthesis of pyrimidines

Biginelli synthesis of pyrimidines

References:
P. Biginelli, Ber. 24, 1317, 2962 (1891); 26, 447 (1893)

Bischler triazine synthesis

Bischler triazine synthesis

References:
A. Bischler Ber. 22, 2801 (1889)

Bischler-Möhlau synthesis of indoles

Síntesis de Indoles de Bishler-Möhlau

References:
A. Bischler et al., Ber. 25, 2860 (1892); 26, 1336 (1893)
R. Mohlau, Ber. 14, 171 (1881); 15, 2480 (1882)

Bodroux-Chichibabin synthesis

Bodroux-Chichibabin synthesis

References:
F. Bodroux, Compt. Rend. 138, 92 (1904)
A. E. Chichibabin, Ber. 37, 186, 850 (1904)

Bogert-Cook synthesis

Bogert-Cook synthesis

References:
M. T. Bogert, Science 77, 289 (1933)
J. W. Cook and C. L. Hewett, J. Chem. Soc. 1933,1098

Bosch-Meiser urea synthesis

Bosch-Meiser urea synthesis

References:
C. Bosch and W. Meiser, U.S. pat. 1,429,483 (1922)

Chichibabin pyridine synthesis

Chichibabin pyridine synthesis

References:
A.E. Chichibabin, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 37,1229(1906)
R.L.Frank, R.P. Seven, J. Am.Chem.Soc. 71,2629(1949)

Combes quinoline synthesis

Combes quinoline synthesis

References:
A. Combes, Bull. Soc. Chim. France [2] 49, 89 (1888)
E. Roberts and E. E. Turner, J. Chem. Soc. 1927, 1932

Conrad-Limpach synthesis

Conrad-Limpach synthesis

References:
M. Conrad and L. Limpach, Ber. 20, 944 (1887); 24, 2990 (1891)

Darzens halogenation (synthesis of alkyl halides)

Darzens halogenation (synthesis of alkyl halides)

References:
G. Darzens, Compt. Rend. 152, 1314, 1601 (1911); 154, 1615 (1912)
A. McKenzie and T. M. A. Tadthorpe, J. Biol, Chem. 62, 551 (1924)
H. Gilman and H. P. Hewlett, Rec. Trao. Chim, 51, 93 (1932)

Darzens synthesis of tetralin

Darzens synthesis of tetralin

References:
G. Darzens, Compt. Rend. 183, 748 (1926).
G. Darzens and A. Heinz Compt. Rend. 18, 83 (1927)
G. Darzens, Compt. Rend. 190, 1308, 1562 (1930)
G. Darzens nd A. Levy, Compt. Rend. ;99, 1131, 1426 (1934); 200, 469 (1935)

Darzens-Nenitzescu synthesis of ketones

Darzens-Nenitzescu synthesis of ketones

References:
G. Darzens, Compt. Rend. 150, 707 (1910)
J. W. Cook and C. A. Lawrence, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1935, 1637

Doebner-Miller Synthesis (Beyer method for quinoline)

Doebner-Miller Synthesis (Beyer method for quinoline)

References:
C. Beyer, ibid. 20,1767 (1887)
Hollins, The Synthesis of Nitrogen Ring Compounds (London, 1924)

Doering-LaFlamme allene synthesis

Doering-LaFlamme allene synthesis

References:
W. von E. Doering and P. M. LaFlamme, Tetrahedron 2, 75 (1958); U.S. pat. 2,933,544 (1960)

Erlenmeyer-Plöchl azlactone and amino acid synthesis

Síntesis de Aminoácidos Erlenmeyer-Plochl

References:
E. Erlenmeyer Ann. 275,1 (1893); J. Plochl, Ber. 17, 1616 (1884)
C. L. A. Schmidt, The Chemistry of the Amino Acids and Proteins, p 54 (Springfield, Ill., 1944)

Feist-Benary synthesis

Feist-Benary synthesis

References:
F. Feist, Ber. 35, 1537, 1545 (1902)
E. Benary, Ber. 44, 489, 493 (1911)

Fischer phenylhydrazine synthesis

Fischer phenylhydrazine synthesis

References:
E. Fischer, Ber, 8, 589 (1979)
E. Fischer, Ann, 190, 79 (1975)

Fischer phenylhydrazone and osazone synthesis

Fischer phenylhydrazone and Osazone synthesis

References:
E. Fischer, Ber. 17, 579 (1875)
E. Fischer, Ber. 20, 82 (1887)

Fischer oxazole synthesis

Fischer oxazole synthesis

References:
E. Fischer, Ber. 29, 205 (1896)
J. Lister and R. Robinson, J. Chem. Soc. 101, 1297 (1912)

Fischer peptide synthesis

Fischer peptide synthesis

References:
L. A. Schmidt, The Chemistry of the Amino Acids and Proteins, p 257 (Springfield, Ill., 1944)

Frankland synthesis

Frankland synthesis

References:
E. Frankland, Ann. 71, 213 (1849); 85, 3641 (1853)
C. R. Noller, Organic Syntheses coll. vol. II, 184 (1943)

Friedländer synthesis

Síntesis de Friedlander

References:
P. Friedländer, Ber. 15, 2572 (1882)
P. Friedländer and C. F. Gohring, Ber. 16, 1833 (1883)

García-Gonzalez synthesis

García-Gonzalez synthesis

References:
F. García González, An. Quim. 32B, 815, (1934)
F. García González, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. 11, 97-143 (1956)

Gastaldi Synthesis

Gastaldi Synthesis

References:
G. Gastaldi, Gazz. Chim. Ital. 51, 233 (1921)
E. J. Krems and P. E. Spoerri, Chem. Revs. 40, 301 (1947)

Gattermann aldehyde synthesis

Gattermann aldehyde synthesis

References:
L. Gattermann, Ber. 31, 1149 (1898); Ann. 357, 313 (1907)
Adams, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 45, 2375 (1923); 46, 1518 (1924)
Karrer, Helv. Chim. Acta 2, 89 (1919). C. A. Thomas, Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride in Organic Chemistry, p 600 (New York, 1941)

Gattermann–Skita synthesis

Gattermann–Skita synthesis

References:
L. Gattermann and A. Skita, Ber. 49, 494 (1916)
L. Gattermann and K. Schnitzspahn, Ber. 31, 1770 (1898)

Gibbs phthalic anhydride process

Gibbs phthalic anhydride process

References:
H. D. Gibbs and C. Conover, U.S. pat. 1, 285, 117 (1918)
A. Wohl, U.S. pat. 1, 787, 416-417 (1930)

Gogte synthesis

Gogte synthesis

References:
C. R. Gogte, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 7A, 214 (1938)
C.A. 32, 5389 (1938)
J. Univ. Bombay 9, Pt. 3, 127 (1940)
C.A. 35, 6930 (1941).
R. C. Elderfield, Heterocyclic Compounds 1, 359 (New York, 1950)

Graebe-Ullmann synthesis

Graebe-Ullmann synthesis

References:
C. Graebe and F. Ullmann, Ann. 291, 16 (1896)
O. Bremer, Ann. 514, 279 (1934)

Grundmann aldehydes synthesis

Grundmann aldehydes synthesis

References:
C. Grundmann, Ann. 524, 31 (1936)
E. Mosettig, Organic Reactions VIII, 225 (1954)

Gutknecht pyrazine synthesis

Gutknecht pyrazine synthesis

References:
H. Gutknecht, Ber. 12, 2290 (1879); 13, 1116 (1880)
P. Treadwell, Ber. 14,1461, 2158 (1881)
S. Gabriel, Ber. 41, 1127 (1908)

Síntesis de Pirroles de Hantzsch

Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis

References:
A. Hantzsch, Ber. 23, 1474 (1890)
F. Feist, Ber. 35, 1538 (1902)
H. Fischer and H. Orth, Die Chemie des Pyrrols 1, 233 (Leipzig, 1934)

Heumann indigo synthesis

Heumann indigo synthesis

References:
K. Heumann, Ber. 23, 3043, 3431 (1890)
Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 7, 810 (New York, 1951)

Hinsberg oxindole and oxiquinoline synthesis

Hinsberg oxindole and oxiquinoline synthesis

References:
O. Hinsberg, Ber. 21,110 (1888); 25, 2545 (1892); 41,1367 (1908)
O. Hinsberg and J. Rosenzweig, Ber. 27, 32S3 (1894)

Hinsberg sulfone synthesis

Hinsberg sulfone synthesis

References:
O. Hinsberg, Ber. 27, 3259 (1894).
O. Hinsberg, Ber. 28, 1315 (t895); 29, 2023 (1896); 30, 2803 (1897); 50, 953 (1917)
W. B. Price and S. Smiles, J. Chem. Soc. 1928, 3154
J. Walker, ibid. 1945, 630
S. Pickholz, ibid. 1946, 685
V. Ettel and M. Semonsky. Collection Czech. Chem. common. 13, 601 (1948)

Hinsberg thiophene synthesis

Hinsberg thiophene synthesis

References:
O. Hinsberg, Ber. 43, 901 (1910)
H. Wynberg, D. Zwanenburg. J. Org. Chem. 29, 1919 (1964)
H. Wynberg, h.J. Kooreman, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 1739 (1965)

Hoch-Campbell ethylenimines synthesis

Hoch-Campbell ethylenimines synthesis

References:
J. Hoch, Compt. Rend. 198, 1865 (1934)
K. N. Campbell and J. F. McKenna, J. Org. Chem. 4, 198 (1939)

Hofmann isonitrile synthesis (carbylamine reaction)

Hofmann isonitrile synthesis (carbylamine reaction)

References:
A. W. Hofmann, Ann. 146, 107 (1868); Ber. 3, 767 (1870)
F. C. Whitmore, Organic Chemistry (Van Nostrand, New York, 1951), p 419
Chem. 23, IS99 (19S8); M. B. Frankel, H. Feuer and J. Bank, Tetrahedron Letters,Van Nostrand, New York, 1951), p 419

Houben-Fischer synthesis

Houben-Fischer synthesis

References:
J. Houben and W. Fischer, J. Prakt. Chem. [2] 123, 89, 262, 313 (1929)
J. Houben and W. Fischer, Ber. 63, 2464 (1930); 64, 240, 2636, 2645 (1931); 66, 339 (1933)
D. T. Mowry, Chem. Revs.42, 221 (1948)

Kishner cyclopropane synthesis

Kishner cyclopropane synthesis

References:
N. M. Kishner and A, Zavadovskii, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 43, 1132 (1911)
N. M. Kishner, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 44, 165, 849 (1912); 45, 949, 957, 987 (1913)
N. M. Kishner and I. B. Losik, Blull. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Classe Sei. Chim. 1941, 49

Knoop-Oesterlin amino acid synthesis

Knoop-Oesterlin amino acid synthesis

References:
F. Knoop and H. Oesterlin, Z. Physiol. Chem. 148, 294 (1925)
Th Wieland, Z. Physiol. Chem. 273, 24 (1942)
Th. Wieland and W. Paul, Ber. 77, 34 (1944)

Knorr pyrazole synthesis

Knorr pyrazole synthesis

References:
L. Knorr, Ber. 16, 2587 (1883)
L. Knorr and A. Blank, Ber, 18, 311 (1885)
L. Knorr, Ann. 279, 232 (1894); L. Knorr and B. Oettinger, Ann. 279, 247 (1894)

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

References:
L. Knorr, Ber. 17, 1635 (1884); Ann. 236, 290 (1886)
L. Knorr and H. Lange, Ber, 35,2998(1902)
A. H. Corwin, R. C. Elderfield, Heterocyciic Compounds 1, 287 (New York, 1950)

Knorr quinoline synthesis

Knorr quinoline synthesis

References:
L. Knorr, Ann. 236, 69 (1886); 245, 357, 378 (1888)
S. Coffey, J. K. Thompson, and F. J. Wilson, J. Chem. Soc. 1936, 856
F. W. Bergstrom, Chem. Rees. 35 157 (1944)

Koenigs-Knorr reaction (Koenigs-Knorr glycosidation)

Koenigs-Knorr reaction (Koenigs-Knorr glycosidation)

References:
W. Koenigs and E. Knorr, Ber. 34, 957 (1901)
Evans et al., in Advances in Carrbohydrate Chemistry 6, p 41 (New York, 1951)

Kröhnke aldehyde synthesis (Kröhnke oxidation)

Kröhnke aldehyde synthesis (Kröhnke oxidation)

References:
F. Kröhnke et al., Ber. 69, 2006 (1936); 71, 2583 (1938); 72, 440 (1939)
P. Karrer and A. Eppecht, Helv. Chim. Acta 24, 1039 (1941)
W. J. Leanza, J. P. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1691 (1954)

Síntesis pyridine synthesis

Síntesis pyridine synthesis

References:
F. Kröhnke et al., Ber. 69, 2006 (1936); 71, 2583 (1938); 72, 440 (1939)
P. Karrer and A. Eppecht, Helv. Chim. Acta 24, 1039 (1941)
W. J. Leanza, J. P. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1691 (1954)

Letts nitrile synthesis

Letts nitrile synthesis

References:
E. A. Letts, Ber. 5, 669 (1872)
G. Kruss, Ber. 17, 1766 (1884)
E. E. Reid, Am. Chem. J. 43, 162 (1910)

Leuckart amide synthesis

Síntesis de Amidas Leuckert

References:
R. Leuckart, Ber. 18, 873 (1885)
Effenberger, Gleiter, Ber. 97, 472 (1964)
Butler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 2578 (1949)

Madelung synthesis

Madelung synthesis

References:
W. Madelung, Ber, 45, 1128(1912);
C. Hollins, The Synthesis of Nitrogen Ring Compounds(London, 1924), p119

Martinet dioxindole synthesis

Martinet dioxindole synthesis

References:
A. Guyot and J. Martinet, Compt. Rend. 156, 1625 (1913)
J. Martinet Compt. Rend. 166, 851, 998 (1918); Ann. Chim. [9] 11, 85 (1919); W. 512, 276 (1934)

Mentzer pyrone synthesis

Mentzer pyrone synthesis

References:
C. Mentzer, W. Molho and P. Vercier, Compt. Rend. 232, 1488 (1951)
C. Mentzer and P. Vercier, Compt. Rents. 232, 1674 (1952)
D. Pillon, ibid. 234, 444 (1952)

Merckwald asymmetric synthesis

Merckwald asymmetric synthesis

References:
W. Marckwald, Ber. 37, 349, 1368 (1904)
J. B. Cohen and T. S. Patterson, Ber. 37, 1012 (1904)
E. Erlenmeyer, Biochem. Z. 64, 366 (1914); F. Ebel and K.

Merrifield solid-phase peptide synthesis

Merrifield solid-phase peptide synthesis

References:
R.B. Merrifield, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 2149 (1963)
B.D. Larsen et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 6247 (1993)

Nef Synthesis

Nef Synthesis

References:
J. U. Nef, Ann. 308, 281 (1899).
Farbenfabriken Bayer, Ger, pats. 280,226; 285 770 (1913)
J. H. Saunders, Organic Syntheses 20, 40 (1940)
A. W. Johnson, Chemistry of the Acetylenic Compounds, p11(London, 1946)

Nenitzescu indole synthesis

Nenitzescu indole synthesis

References:
C. D. Nenitzescu, Bull. Soc. Chim. Romania 11, 37 (1929)
R. J. S. Beer et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1951, 2029; 1953, 1262
A. N. Grinev et al., Zh. Obshch. Khim. 25, 1355 (1955); 27, 1690 (1957)

Niementowski quinazoline synthesis

Niementowski quinazoline synthesis

References:
S. v. Niementowski, J. Prakt. Chem. 51, 564 (1895)

Niementowski quinoline synthesis

Niementowski quinoline synthesis

References:
S. v. Niementowski, Ber. 27, 1394 (1894); 28, 2809 (1895); 38, 2044 (1905); 40, 4285 (1907)
C. Hollins, The Synthesis of Nitrogen Ring Compounds p 292 (London, 1924)

Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis

References:
C. Paal, Ber. 18, 367 (1885)
L. Knorr, Ber. 18, 299 (1885)
H. Fischer and H. Orth, Die Chemie dew Pyrrols 1, p 34 (Leipzig, 1934)

Pechmann pyrazole synthesis

Pechmann pyrazole synthesis

References:
H. v. Pechmann, Ber. 31, 2950 (1898)
W. Huckel, J. Datow, and E. Simmersbach, Z. Physik. Chem. 186A, 129 (1940)

Pelouze synthesis

Pelouze synthesis

References:
J. Pelouze, Ann. 10, 249 (1834)
A. Gautier, Ann. Chimie [4] 17, 181 (1869)
H. Guillemard, Ann. Chimie [8]14, 366 (1908)

Perkin alicyclic synthesis

Perkin alicyclic synthesis

References:
W. H. Perkin, Jr., Ber. 16, 1793 (1883)
W. H. Perkin, Jr., J. Chent. Soc. 47, 801 (1885); P. C. Freer and W. H. Perkin, Jr., ibid. 53, 202(1888)

Plattner azulene synthesis

Plattner azulene synthesis

References:
A. St. Pfau and P. A. Plattner, Hels. Chim. Acta 22, 202 (1939)
P. A. Plattner et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 23, 907 (1940); 24, 483 (1941), 25, 590 (1942)

Pictet-Gams isoquinoline synthesis

Pictet-Gams isoquinoline synthesis

References:
A. Pictet and A. Gams, Ber. 43, 2384 (1910)
R. Forsyth, C. I. Kelly, and F. L. PInan, J. Chem. Soc. 127, 1659 (1925)
K. W. Rosenmund, M. Nothnagel, and H.Reisenfeldt, Ber. 60, 392 (1927)

Pictet-Spengler isoquinoline synthesis

Pictet-Spengler isoquinoline synthesis

References:
A. Pictet and T. Spengler, Ber. 44, 2030 (1951)
Whaley, Govindachari in Organic Reactions vol. 6, p 151 (New York, 1951).

Piloty's alloxazine synthesis

Piloty's alloxazine synthesis

References:
O. Piloty, Alan. 333, 22 (1904)
F. E. Killg, R. M. Acheson and A. B. Yorke-Long, J. Chent. Soc. 1948, 1926

Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis

Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis

References:
O. Piloty, Ber. 43, 489 (1910)
G. M. Robinson and R. Robinson, J. Chem. Soc. 43, 639 (1918)

Pinner amidine synthesis

Pinner amidine synthesis

References:
A. Pinner and F. Klein, Ber. 10 1889 (1877); 11, 4, 1475 (1878)
A. Pinner, Die Imidoather and ihre Derivate, pp 14, 86 (Berlin, 1892; reprinted Ann Arbor, Mich.,1961)

Pinner triazine synthesis

Pinner triazine synthesis

References:
A. Pinner, Ber. 23, 2919 (1890)
A. Pinner, Ber. 25, 1414 (1892); 28, 483 (1895)
J. Ephraim, Bet. 26, 2226 (1893); P. Flatow, Ber. 30, 2006 (1897)

Raschig phenol synthesis

Raschig phenol synthesis

References:
F. Raschig, Fr. pat. 698,341 (1930); C.A. 25, 3012 (1931)
W. H. Prahl, U.S. pat. 1,963,761 (1934); 2,156,402 (1939)
Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology p 289 (New York, 1953)

Reissert indole synthesis

Reissert indole synthesis

References:
A. Reissert, Ber. 30, 1030 (1897)
W. O. Kermack, W. H. Perkin, Jr., and R. Robinson, J. Chem. Soc. 119, 1602 (1921)

Riehm quinoline synthesis

Riehm quinoline synthesis

References:
P. Riehm er al., Ber. 18, 2245 (1885); 19, 1394 (1886)
P. Riehm, Ann. 238, 9 (1887)
E. Knoevenagel et al., Ber. 55, 1923, 1934 (1922); 56, 2414 (1923)

Riemschneider thiocarbamate synthesis

Riemschneider thiocarbamate synthesis

References:
R. Riemschneider and F. Wojahn, Pharmazie 4, 460 (1949)
Chim. Ind. (Paris) 64, 99 (1950)
Pharm. Zentralhalle 89,118(1950)
R. Riemschneider, Chins. Ind. (Milan) 33, 483 (1951)
R. Riemschneider, F. Wojahn, and G. Orlick, J. Am. Cheryl. Soc.3, 5905 (1951)

Sandmeyer diphenylurea isatin synthesis

Sandmeyer diphenylurea isatin synthesis

References:
T. Sandmeyer, Z. Farb. Textile Chem. 2, 129 (1903)
J. R. Geigy & Co., Ger. pat. 115,169, 116, 563 (1900)
Friedlander 6, 574, 575 (1900-1902)
A. Reissert, Ber. 37, 3708 (1904)
G. Schultz, G. Rhode and G. Hertzog, J. Prakt. Chem. [2] 74, 74, 76 (1906)

Sandmeyer isonitrosoacetanilide isatin synthesis

Sandmeyer isonitrosoacetanilide isatin synthesis

References:
T. Sandmeyer, Helv. Chim. Acta 2, 234 (1919).
J. R. Geigy & Co., Ger. pat. 113,848, 113, 981, 123, 887 (1902)
Friedlander 6, 573, 579, 582 (1900-1902)

Schmidlin ketene synthesis

Schmidlin ketene synthesis

References:
J. Schmidlin and M. Bergman, Ber. 43, 2821 (1910)
H. Staudinger, Die Ketene, p 21 (Stuttgart, 1912)
J. Al, Angew. Chem. 45, 545 (1932)

Schöllkopf bis-lactim amino acid synthesis

Schöllkopf bis-lactim amino acid synthesis

References:
U. Schollkopf et al., Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 18, 863 (1979); 20, 798 (1981)
S. Kotha, A. Kuki, Chem. Commun. 1992, 404
M. S. Allen et al., Synth. Commun. 22, 2077 (1992)
N. R. Thomas, D. Gani. Tetrahedron 47, 497 (1991)

Staedel-Rugheimer pyrazine synthesis

Staedel-Rugheimer pyrazine synthesis

References:
W. Staledel and L. Rugheimer, Ber. 9, 563 (1876)
E. Kolshol n, Ber. 37, 2478 (1904)

Stollé synthesis

Stollé synthesis

References:
R. Stolle, Ber. 46, 3915 (1913); 47, 2120 (1914)
J. Prakt. Chem. 105, 137 (1923)
W. C. Sumpter, Chem. Revs. 34, 396 (1944); 37, 446 (1945)

Traube purine synthesis

Traube purine synthesis

References:
W. Traube, Ber, 33, 1371, 3035 (1900)
W. Traube, Ann, 331, 64 (1904)

Urech cyanohydrin method

Urech cyanohydrin method

References:
F. Urech, Ann. 164, 225 (1872)
A.J. Ultee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 28, 1 (1909)
A.J. Ultee, Ber, 39, 1856 (1906)

Urech hydantoin synthesis

Urech hydantoin synthesis

References:
F. Urech, Ann. 165, 99 (1873)
H.D. Dakin, Am. Chem. J. 44, 48 (1910)
T.B. Johnson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 35, 780 (1913)

von Richter cinnoline synthesis

von Richter cinnoline synthesis

References:
V. von Richter, Ber. 16, 677 (1883)
M. Busch and M. Klett, Ber. 25, 2847 (1892)
N. J. Leonard, Chem. Revs. 37, 270 (1945)

Widman-Stoermer synthesis

Widman-Stoermer synthesis

References:
O. Widman, Ber. 17, 722 (1884)
R. Stoermer and H. Fincke, Ber. 42, 3115 (1909)
O. Widman, Ber. 42, 1916 (1909)
R. Stoermer and O. Gaus, Ber. 45, 3104 (1912)

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