Tabla periódica

La actual tabla periódica de los elementos queda como se indica a continuación:

Origen de la Tabla Periódica

Se denomina tabla periódica a la representación de los elementos químicos de una manera ordenada, en grupos y periodos propuesta por el Químico Dmitri Mendeleiev (1834-1907). En 1869, Mendeléyev ordenó los elementos que se conocían hasta la fecha en forma de una la tabla donde se repetían propiedades en grupos, cuando le explicaba a sus alumnos con unas cartas que llevaban anotados el peso atómico y varias propiedades químicas.

Cuando se ordenaban de manera creciente en el peso atómico resultaban que los elementos de un mismo grupo mostraban propiedades químicas similares.

Elementos ordenados por número atómico

Nº atómicoNombreSímbolo
1HidrógenoH
2HelioHe
3LitioLi
4BerilioBe
5BoroB
6CarbonoC
7NitrógenoN
8OxígenoO
9FlúorF
10NeónNe
11SodioNa
12MagnesioMg
13AluminioAl
14SilicioSi
15FósforoP
16AzufreS
17CloroCl
18ArgónAr
19PotasioK
20CalcioCa
21EscandioSc
22TitanioTi
23VanadioV
24CromoCr
25ManganesoMn
26HierroFe
27CobaltoCo
28NíquelNi
29CobreCu
30ZincZn
31GalioGa
32GermanioGe
33ArsénicoAs
34SelenioSe
35BromoBr
36KriptónKr
37RubidioRb
38EstroncioSr
39ItrioY
40ZirconioZr
41NiobioNb
42MolibdenoMo
43TecnecioTc
44RutenioRu
45RodioRh
46PaladioPd
47PlataAg
48CadmioCd
49IndioIn
50EstañoSn
51AntimonioSb
52TelurioTe
53IodoI
54XenónXe
55CesioCs
56BarioBa
57LantanoLa
58CerioCe
59PraseodimioPr
60NeodimioNd
61PrometioPm
62SamarioSm
63EuropioEu
64GadolinioGd
65TerbioTb
66DisprosioDy
67HolmioHo
68ErbioEr
69TulioTm
70IterbioYb
71LutecioLu
72HafnioHf
73TántaloTa
74WolframioW
75RenioRe
76OsmioOs
77IridioIr
78PlatinoPt
79OroAu
80MercurioHg
81TalioTl
82PlomoPb
83BismutoBi
84PolonioPo
85ÁstatoAt
86RadónRn
87FrancioFr
88RadioRa
89ActinioAc
90TorioTh
91ProtactinioPa
92UranioU
93NeptunioNp
94PlutonioPu
95AmericioAm
96CurioCm
97BerkelioBk
98CalifornioCf
99EinstenioEs
100FermioFm
101MendelevioMd
102NobelioNo
103LawrencioLr
104RutherfordioRf
105DubnioDb
106SeaborgioSg
107BohrioBh
108HassioHs
109MeitnerioMt
110DarmstatioDs
111RoentgenioRg
112CopernicioCn
113NihonioNh
114FlerovioFl
115MoscovioMc
116LivermorioLv
117TenesoTs
118OganesónOg

¿Como varía el radio atómico?

En la siguiente tabla se indican los valores de los radios de van der Waals y covalentes para todos los elementos de la tabla periódica.[1]

Nº atómicoSímboloRadio vdW (pm)Radio covalente (pm)
1H11032
2He14037
3Li182130
4Be15399
5B19284
6C17075
7N15571
8O15264
9F14760
10Ne15462
11Na227160
12Mg173140
13Al184124
14Si210114
15P180109
16S180104
17Cl175100
18Ar188101
19K275200
20Ca231174
21Sc215159
22Ti211148
23V207144
24Cr206130
25Mn205129
26Fe204124
27Co200118
28Ni197117
29Cu196122
30Zn201120
31Ga187123
32Ge211120
33As185120
34Se190118
35Br185117
36Kr202116
37Rb303215
38Sr249190
39Y232176
40Zr223164
41Nb218156
42Mo217146
43Tc216138
44Ru213136
45Rh210134
46Pd210130
47Ag211136
48Cd218140
49In193142
50Sn217140
51Sb206140
52Te206137
53I198136
54Xe216136
55Cs343238
56Ba268206
57La243194
58Ce242184
59Pr240190
60Nd239188
61Pm238186
62Sm236185
63Eu235183
64Gd234182
65Tb233181
66Dy231180
67Ho230179
68Er229177
69Tm227177
70Yb226178
71Lu224172
72Hf223164
73Ta222158
74W218150
75Re216141
76Os216136
77Ir213132
78Pt213130
79Au214130
80Hg223132
81Tl196144
82Pb202145
83Bi207150
84Po197142
85At202148
86Rn220146
87Fr348242
88Ra283211
89Ac247201
90Th245190
91Pa243184
92U241183
93Np239180
94Pu243180
95Am244173
96Cm245168
97Bk244168
98Cf245168
99Es245165
100Fm245167
101Md246173
102No246176
103Lr246161
104Rf157
105Db149
106Sg143
107Bh141
108Hs134
109Mt129
110Ds128
111Rg121
112Cn122
113Nh136
114Fl143
115Mc162
116Lv175
117Ts165
118Og157

En la siguiente figura se ilustran cómo varían dichos valores de manera periódica a medida que incrementamos en el número atómico de todos los elementos.

Variación radio de van der Waals vdw radio covalente número atómico tabla periodica
Variación de los radios de van der Waals (azul) y radios covalentes (verde) a medida que aumenta el número atómico.

Propiedades fisico-químicas de los elementos

Masa atómica y abundancia de los diferentes isótopos

A continuación se listan las masas atómicas de los distintios isótopos junto con su abundancia relativa.[1]

IsótopoMasa atómica (u)Abundancia (%)
1H1.00782503223(9)99.9885(70)
2H2.01410177812(12)0.0115(70)
3H3.0160492779(24)
3He3.0160293201(25)0.000134(3)
4He4.00260325413(6)99.999866(3)
6Li6.0151228874(15)7.59(4)
7Li7.016003437(5)92.41(4)
9Be9.01218307(8)100
10B10.0129369(4)19.9(7)
11B11.0093054(4)80.1(7)
11C11.0114336(10)
12C12.0000000(0)98.93(8)
13C13.00335483507(23)1.07(8)
14C14.003241988(4)
14N14.00307400443(20)99.636(20)
15N15.0001088989(6)0.364(20)
16O15.99491461957(17)99.757(16)
17O16.9991317565(7)0.038(1)
18O17.9991596129(8)0.205(14)
18F18.0009373(5)
19F18.9984031627(9)100
20Ne19.9924401762(17)90.48(3)
21Ne20.99384669(4)0.27(1)
22Ne21.991385114(18)9.25(3)
22Na21.99443741(18)
23Na22.9897692820(19)100
24Na23.99096295(4)
24Mg23.985041697(14)78.951(12)
25Mg24.98583698(5)10.020(8)
26Mg25.98259297(3)11.029(10)
27Al26.98153853(11)100
28Si27.9769265346(4)92.223(19)
29Si28.9764946649(5)4.685(8)
30Si29.973770136(23)3.092(11)
31P30.9737619984(7)100
32P31.97390764(4)
32S31.9720711744(14)94.99(26)
33S32.9714589098(15)0.75(2)
34S33.96786700(5)4.25(24)
35S34.96903231(4)
36S35.96708071(20)0.01(1)
35Cl34.96885268(4)75.76(10)
37Cl36.96590260(6)24.24(10)
36Ar35.967545105(28)0.3365(30)
38Ar37.96273211(21)0.0632(5)
40Ar39.9623831237(24)99.6003(30)
39K38.963706486(5)93.2581(44)
40K39.96399817(6)0.0117(1)
41K40.961825258(4)6.7302(44)
42K41.96240231(11)
43K42.9607347(4)
40Ca39.962590863(22)96.941(156)
42Ca41.95861783(16)0.647(23)
43Ca42.95876644(24)0.135(10)
44Ca43.9554816(3)2.086(110)
45Ca44.9561864(4)
46Ca45.9536890(24)0.004(3)
47Ca46.9545424(24)
48Ca47.95252277(13)0.187(21)
45Sc44.9559083(8)100
46Ti45.9526277(3)8.25(3)
47Ti46.9517588(4)7.44(2)
48Ti47.9479420(4)73.72(3)
49Ti48.9478657(4)5.41(2)
50Ti49.9447869(4)5.18(2)
50V49.9471560(9)0.250(4)
51V50.9439570(9)99.750(4)
50Cr49.9460418(9)4.345(13)
51Cr50.9447650(9)
52Cr51.9405062(6)83.789(18)
53Cr52.9406481(6)9.501(17)
54Cr53.9388792(6)2.365(7)
54Mn53.9403576(12)
55Mn54.9380439(5)100
52Fe51.948113(7)
54Fe53.9396090(5)5.845(35)
55Fe54.9382920(5)
56Fe55.9349363(5)91.754(36)
57Fe56.9353928(5)2.119(10)
58Fe57.9332744(5)0.282(4)
59Fe58.9348743(5)
57Co56.9362906(7)
58Co57.9357521(13)
59Co58.9331943(6)100
60Co59.9338163(6)
58Ni57.9353424(5)68.077(19)
59Ni58.9343462(5)
60Ni59.9307859(5)26.223(15)
61Ni60.9310556(5)1.1399(13)
62Ni61.9283454(6)3.6345(40)
63Ni62.9296696(6)
64Ni63.9279668(6)0.9255(19)
63Cu62.9295977(6)69.15(3)
64Cu63.9297643(6)
65Cu64.9277897(7)30.85(3)
64Zn63.9291420(7)49.17(75)
65Zn64.9292408(7)
66Zn65.9260338(9)27.73(98)
67Zn66.9271277(10)4.04(16)
68Zn67.9248446(10)18.45(63)
70Zn69.9253192(21)0.61(10)
67Ga66.9282025(13)
68Ga67.9279805(16)
69Ga68.9255735(13)60.108(9)
71Ga70.9247026(9)39.892(9)
68Ge67.9280953(20)
70Ge69.9242488(9)20.52(19)
72Ge71.92207583(8)27.45(15)
73Ge72.92345896(6)7.76(8)
74Ge73.921177761(13)36.52(12)
76Ge75.921402726(19)7.75(12)
75As74.9215946(9)100
74Se73.922475934(15)0.86(3)
75Se74.92252287(8)
76Se75.919213704(17)9.23(7)
77Se76.91991415(7)7.60(7)
78Se77.91730928(20)23.69(22)
79Se78.91849929(24)
80Se79.9165218(13)49.80(36)
82Se81.9166995(15)8.82(15)
79Br78.9183376(14)50.69(7)
81Br80.9162897(14)49.31(7)
78Kr77.9203649(8)0.355(3)
80Kr79.9163781(7)2.286(10)
82Kr81.9134827(9)11.593(31)
83Kr82.9141272(3)11.500(19)
84Kr83.911497728(4)56.987(15)
86Kr85.910610627(4)17.279(41)
85Rb84.911789738(5)72.17(2)
86Rb85.91116743(21)
87Rb86.909180531(6)27.83(2)
84Sr83.9134191(13)0.56(1)
85Sr84.912932(3)
86Sr85.9092606(12)9.86(1)
87Sr86.9088775(12)7.00(1)
88Sr87.9056125(12)82.58(1)
89Sr88.9074511(12)
90Sr89.9077300(28)
89Y88.9058403(24)100
90Zr89.9046977(20)51.45(40)
91Zr90.9056396(20)11.22(5)
92Zr91.9050347(20)17.15(8)
94Zr93.9063108(20)17.38(28)
96Zr95.9082714(21)2.80(9)
93Nb92.9063730(20)100
92Mo91.9068080(8)14.649(106)
94Mo93.9050849(5)9.187(33)
95Mo94.9058388(5)15.873(30)
96Mo95.9046761(5)16.673(8)
97Mo96.9060181(5)9.582(15)
98Mo97.9054048(5)24.292(80)
99Mo98.9077085(5)
100Mo99.9074718(11)9.744(65)
97Tc96.906367(4)
98Tc97.907212(4)
99Tc98.9062508(10)
96Ru95.9075903(5)5.54(14)
98Ru97.905287(7)1.87(3)
99Ru98.9059341(11)12.76(14)
100Ru99.9042143(11)12.60(7)
101Ru100.9055769(12)17.06(2)
102Ru101.9043441(12)31.55(14)
104Ru103.9054275(28)18.62(27)
106Ru105.907329(6)
103Rh102.9054980(26)100
102Pd101.9056022(28)1.02(1)
104Pd103.9040305(14)11.14(8)
105Pd104.9050796(12)22.33(8)
106Pd105.9034804(12)27.33(3)
108Pd107.9038916(12)26.46(9)
110Pd109.9051722(7)11.72(9)
107Ag106.9050916(26)51.839(8)
109Ag108.9047553(14)48.161(8)
106Cd105.9064599(12)1.25(6)
108Cd107.9041834(12)0.89(3)
110Cd109.9030066(6)12.49(18)
111Cd110.9041829(6)12.80(12)
112Cd111.9027629(6)24.13(21)
113Cd112.9044081(4)12.22(12)
114Cd113.9033651(4)28.73(42)
116Cd115.90476315(17)7.49(18)
111In110.905108(4)
113In112.9040618(9)4.281(52)
115In114.903878776(12)95.719(52)
112Sn111.9048239(6)0.97(1)
113Sn112.9051757(18)
114Sn113.9027827(10)0.66(1)
115Sn114.903344699(16)0.34(1)
116Sn115.90174280(10)14.54(9)
117Sn116.9029540(5)7.68(7)
118Sn117.9016066(5)24.22(9)
119Sn118.9033112(8)8.59(4)
120Sn119.9022016(10)32.58(9)
122Sn121.9034438(26)4.63(3)
124Sn123.9052766(11)5.79(5)
121Sb120.903812(3)57.21(5)
123Sb122.9042132(23)42.79(5)
120Te119.904059(3)0.09(1)
122Te121.9030435(16)2.55(12)
123Te122.9042698(16)0.89(3)
124Te123.9028179(16)4.74(14)
125Te124.9044299(16)7.07(15)
126Te125.9033109(16)18.84(25)
128Te127.9044613(9)31.74(8)
130Te129.906222748(12)34.08(62)
123I122.905589(4)
125I124.9046294(16)
127I126.904472(4)100
129I128.904984(3)
131I130.9061263(7)
124Xe123.9058920(19)0.0952(3)
126Xe125.904298(4)0.0890(2)
128Xe127.9035310(11)1.9102(8)
129Xe128.904780861(6)26.4006(82)
130Xe129.903509349(10)4.0710(13)
131Xe130.90508406(24)21.2324(30)
132Xe131.904155086(6)26.9086(33)
134Xe133.9053947(9)10.4357(21)
136Xe135.907214484(11)8.8573(44)
129Cs128.906066(5)
133Cs132.905451961(8)100
134Cs133.906718503(17)
136Cs135.9073114(20)
137Cs136.9070892(4)
130Ba129.9063207(28)0.106(1)
132Ba131.9050611(11)0.101(1)
133Ba132.9060074(11)
134Ba133.90450818(30)2.417(18)
135Ba134.90568838(29)6.592(12)
136Ba135.90457573(29)7.854(24)
137Ba136.9058271(3)11.232(24)
138Ba137.9052470(3)71.698(42)
140Ba139.910606(9)
138La137.907115(4)0.090(1)
139La138.9063563(24)99.910(1)
136Ce135.9071292(4)0.185(2)
138Ce137.905991(10)0.251(2)
140Ce139.9054431(23)88.450(51)
141Ce140.9082807(23)
142Ce141.9092504(29)11.114(51)
144Ce143.913653(3)
141Pr140.9076576(23)100
142Nd141.9077290(20)27.2(5)
143Nd142.9098200(20)12.2(2)
144Nd143.9100930(20)23.8(3)
145Nd144.9125793(20)8.3(1)
146Nd145.9131226(20)17.2(3)
148Nd147.9168993(26)5.7(1)
150Nd149.9209022(18)5.6(2)
145Pm144.912756(3)
147Pm146.9151450(19)
144Sm143.9120065(21)3.07(7)
147Sm146.9149044(19)14.99(18)
148Sm147.9148292(19)11.24(10)
149Sm148.9171921(18)13.82(7)
150Sm149.9172829(18)7.38(1)
152Sm151.9197397(18)26.75(16)
154Sm153.9222169(20)22.75(29)
151Eu150.9198578(18)47.81(6)
153Eu152.9212380(18)52.19(6)
152Gd151.9197995(18)0.20(1)
154Gd153.9208741(17)2.18(3)
155Gd154.9226305(17)14.80(12)
156Gd155.9221312(17)20.47(9)
157Gd156.9239686(17)15.65(2)
158Gd157.9241123(17)24.84(7)
160Gd159.9270624(18)21.86(19)
159Tb158.9253547(19)100
156Dy155.9242847(17)0.056(3)
158Dy157.924416(3)0.095(3)
160Dy159.9252046(20)2.329(18)
161Dy160.9269405(20)18.889(42)
162Dy161.9268056(20)25.475(36)
163Dy162.9287383(20)24.896(42)
164Dy163.9291819(20)28.260(54)
165Ho164.9303288(21)100
162Er161.9287884(20)0.139(5)
164Er163.9292088(20)1.601(3)
166Er165.9302995(22)33.503(36)
167Er166.9320546(22)22.869(9)
168Er167.9323767(22)26.978(18)
170Er169.9354702(26)14.910(36)
169Tm168.9342179(22)100
168Yb167.9338896(22)0.13(1)
169Yb168.9351825(22)
170Yb169.9347664(22)3.04(15)
171Yb170.9363302(22)14.28(57)
172Yb171.9363859(22)21.83(67)
173Yb172.9382151(22)16.13(27)
174Yb173.9388664(22)31.83(92)
176Yb175.9425764(24)12.76(41)
175Lu174.9407718(23)97.41(2)
176Lu175.9426897(20)2.59(2)
174Hf173.9400461(28)0.16(1)
176Hf175.9414076(22)5.26(7)
177Hf176.9432277(20)18.60(9)
178Hf177.9437058(20)27.28(7)
179Hf178.9458232(20)13.62(2)
180Hf179.9465570(20)35.08(16)
180Ta179.9474648(24)0.012(2)
181Ta180.9479958(20)99.988(2)
180W179.9467108(20)0.12(1)
182W181.9482039(9)26.50(16)
183W182.9502227(9)14.31(4)
184W183.9509309(9)30.64(2)
186W185.9543628(17)28.43(19)
185Re184.9529545(13)37.40(2)
187Re186.9557501(16)62.60(2)
184Os183.9524885(14)0.02(1)
186Os185.9538350(16)1.59(3)
187Os186.9557474(16)1.96(2)
188Os187.9558352(16)13.24(8)
189Os188.9581442(17)16.15(5)
190Os189.9584437(17)26.26(2)
192Os191.9614770(29)40.78(19)
191Ir190.9605893(21)37.3(2)
193Ir192.9629216(21)62.7(2)
190Pt189.959930(6)0.014(1)
192Pt191.961039(3)0.782(7)
194Pt193.9626809(10)32.967(99)
195Pt194.9647917(10)33.832(10)
196Pt195.9649521(10)25.242(41)
198Pt197.9678949(23)7.163(55)
197Au196.9665688(7)100
198Au197.9682424(7)
196Hg195.965833(3)0.155(12)
197Hg196.967213(3)
198Hg197.9667686(5)10.038(16)
199Hg198.9682806(5)16.938(39)
200Hg199.9683266(5)23.138(65)
201Hg200.9703028(7)13.170(66)
202Hg201.9706434(7)29.743(89)
203Hg202.9728728(18)
204Hg203.9734940(5)6.818(35)
201Tl200.970822(15)
203Tl202.9723446(14)29.52(1)
205Tl204.9744278(14)70.48(1)
204Pb203.9730440(13)1.4(1)
206Pb205.9744657(13)24.1(1)
207Pb206.9758973(13)22.1(1)
208Pb207.9766525(13)52.4(1)
210Pb209.9841889(16)
207Bi206.9784710(26)
209Bi208.9803991(16)100
209Po208.9824308(20)
210Po209.9828741(13)
210At209.987148(8)
211At210.9874963(30)
211Rn210.990601(7)
220Rn220.0113941(23)
222Rn222.0175782(25)
223Fr223.0197360(25)
223Ra223.0185023(27)
224Ra224.0202120(23)
226Ra226.0254103(25)
228Ra228.0310707(26)
227Ac227.0277523(25)
228Th228.0287413(23)
230Th230.0331341(19)
232Th232.0380558(21)100
231Pa231.0358842(24)100
233U233.0396355(29)
234U234.0409523(19)0.0054(5)
235U235.0439301(19)0.7204(6)
236U236.0455682(19)
238U238.0507884(20)99.2742(10)
237Np237.0481736(19)
239Np239.0529392(22)
238Pu238.0495601(19)
239Pu239.0521636(19)
240Pu240.0538138(19)
241Pu241.0568517(19)
242Pu242.0587428(20)
244Pu244.064205(6)
241Am241.0568293(19)
243Am243.0613813(24)
243Cm243.0613893(22)
244Cm244.0627528(19)
245Cm245.0654915(22)
246Cm246.0672238(22)
247Cm247.070354(5)
248Cm248.072350(6)
247Bk247.070307(6)
249Bk249.0749877(27)
249Cf249.0748539(23)
250Cf250.0764062(22)
251Cf251.079589(5)
252Cf252.081627(6)
252Es252.08298(5)
257Fm257.095106(7)
256Md256.09389(13)
258Md258.098431(5)
259No259.10103(11)
262Lr262.10961(22)
261Rf261.10877(5)
262Db262.11407(15)
266Sg266.1220(3)
272Bh272.1383(6)
277Hs277.1519(6)
276Mt276.1516(6)
281Ds281.1645(6)
280Rg280.1651(6)
285Cn285.1771(6)
287Fl287.1868(7)
291Lv291.2011(7)

Referencias y notas

[1] Los datos han sido recopilados de CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 97th Edition.